Today in History: Executive Orders 9980 & 9981

Copy of Executive Order No. 9981 signed by President Harry. S. Truman

Today in History–July 26–the Primary Source Nexus features two presidential edicts signed by President Harry S. Truman on this date in 1948. Executive Orders 9980 and 9981 mandated, respectively, that “All personnel actions taken by Federal appointing officers shall be based solely on merit and fitness. . .” and “equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed services without regard to race, color, religion or national origin.” Follow the links below to learn more from primary sources.

Executive Orders 9980 and 9981

Executive Order 9980 | Executive Order 9981 Harry S. Truman Library & Museum

“Equality of Treatment and Opportunity”: Executive Order 9981 Stories from the Veterans History Project

No Action Yet on Truman’s FEPC Order The Voice (Lincoln, Nebraska) 07 Oct. 1948

Alabama Aide Refuses to Obey FEPC Order Fired by Treas. Dept. The Miami Times (Miami, Fla.) 20 Nov. 1948

Defied FEP Directive of President – Was Collector of Internal Revenue Jackson Advocate (Jackson, Miss.) 27 Nov. 1948

NAACP: A Century in the Fight for Freedom

The Civil Rights Act of 1964: A Long Struggle for Freedom

African Americans at War: Fighting Two Battles Stories from the Veterans History Project

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