In the late nineteenth century black women organized to bolster their communities by undertaking educational, philanthropic and welfare activities.¹
African-American women’s clubs in Chicago 1890-1920 Illinois Periodicals Online
Today in History: Phillis Wheatley primary source collections
Today in History: Mary Church Terrell primary source collections
1: Lerner, Gerda. “Early Community Work of Black Club Women.” The Journal of Negro History. Vol. 59, No. 2, Apr., 1974 Accessed 03-19-15 via JSTOR.