November 23, 2017

Selecting Sources: Tertiary, Secondary, Primary

When conducting research, you will likely use three types of sources: primary, secondary, and tertiary. While exact definitions may vary by discipline or institution, we hope this post will help you sort out the main distinctions between these types of sources and when to use each in the research process for National History Day (NHD) and other research projects. When creating NHD or other research projects, you will use secondary and primary sources and, possibly, tertiary sources but your … [Read more...]

Featured Image: Christmas News

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Today in History: Frank Lloyd Wright

Today in History--June 8--the Library of Congress features architect Frank Lloyd Wright, born on this day in 1867. Famous for his Prairie School houses, Wright also produced plans for public buildings innovative yet practical. His personal life, however was quite the opposite of his architecture. Learn more by the Today in History section, then click the links below to access more resources about this architectural visionary. Frederick C. Robie House, Chicago, IL Falling Water, Fayette … [Read more...]

Analyzing Primary Sources: Learning from Video Recordings

Video is used to tell stories and provide information. Because we live in a world increasingly dominated by video, it is critical that we teach students how to analyze this powerful primary source that combines moving images with sound and, sometimes, text. In addition to dramatic or documentary films, primary source video recordings include news reports, interviews, press conferences, testimonies, advertisements, entertainment broadcasts, and more. The analysis of video recordings, like primary … [Read more...]

Analyzing Primary Sources: Learning from Audio Recordings

Written texts can be very powerful, but add sound and those words gain an extra dimension; just think of the difference between reading a speech and hearing one, particularly one delivered by a talented orator. In addition to speeches, primary source audio recordings include interviews, press conferences, testimonies, advertisements, entertainment broadcasts, and more. The analysis of audio recordings, like primary source images, Common Core English Language Arts Standards (CCSS), including … [Read more...]

Analyzing Primary Sources: Learning from Political Cartoons

Political cartoons, many of which contain both an image and text, are great primary sources to use with students to help them recognize and understand symbolism, perspective, and bias as well as put people, events, issues, and ideas into historical context. The analysis of political cartoons, like other primary source images, Common Core English Language Arts Standards (CCSS). They are also particularly helpful in meeting grade 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies Reading Standards 1, 2, 4, … [Read more...]

Analyzing Primary Sources: Learning from Maps

Oh, the wonderful worlds we discover when we look at maps! The original infographics, maps help us visualize places, features, activities, distributions, routes, and more. The Common Core English Language Arts Standards (CCSS) consider maps a type of informational text for grades K-5 and the analysis of primary source maps is particularly emphasized in CCSS Reading Anchor Standard 7—Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as … [Read more...]

Connecting to the Common Core: Image Questions & Responses

Questioning & the Common Core State Standards The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Reading emphasize teaching students to become active questioners beginning in kindergarten. RL/RI.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. RL/RI.1.1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. RL/RI.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. RL/RI.3.1. … [Read more...]

Connecting to the Common Core: Analyzing Primary Source Images

Although image analysis activities do not generally require reading (apart from reading bits of text found in an image), the skills required to extract information from visual content are similar to those required to extract information from text. Practicing these skills using primary source images provides students with a great scaffolded learning opportunity. The table below shows how the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Reading Anchor Standards map to primary source image analysis … [Read more...]

Analyzing Primary Sources: Learning from Oral Histories

History textbooks give overviews of people and events of the past. Primary sources provide varied perspectives, adding details, nuance and, often, a sense of immediacy that make history come alive. Oral histories and personal narratives allow us to step into someone else's shoes for a moment and make personal connections to history. Students who completed the TPS-Barat Digital Stories of Our Heroes project, described the difference between learning from a textbook and learning from an oral … [Read more...]